IndiaÕs Struggle for Independence


I.  Indian Nationalism

       A.  Indian National Congress formed in 1885

              1.  Created to give Indians a voice

              2.  Became powerful with Mohandas GandhiÕs leadership

                      a.  supported nonviolence and civil disobedience

                      b.  boycotted British goods & urged Indians to spin cloth

       B.  Muslim League formed in 1906

              1.  Created to give Muslim minority a voice

              2.  Became powerful with Muhammad JinnahÕs leadership


II.  British Response to Indian Nationalism

       A.  Early nationalist movements mostly ignored by British

       B.  Indians were promised self-rule if they supported British in WWI

       C.  At warÕs end, British refused to honor promise – Indians outraged

       D.  Rowlatt Act passed in 1919

              1.  Large gatherings of Indians outlawed

              2.  Protesters jailed without trial for up to 2 years

              3.  Amritsar Massacre

                      a.  10,000 Hindus and Muslims gathered for a festival

                      b.  British troops fired at crowd, killing 400, injuring 1200

       E.  Peaceful Salt Marches met with police violence

       F.  Self-rule finally granted in Government Act of India – 1935

              1.  Local self-government and limited elections allowed

              2.  Hindus and Muslims disagreed on plan for IndiaÕs future


III.  Independence

       A.  After WWII, British planned to end rule

       B.  Hindus & Muslims rioted over independence plan

       C.  Partition into India and Pakistan – 1947

              1.  British allowed one month for the separation

              2.  India designated for Hindus, Pakistan for Muslims

              3.  10,000,000 migrated across the continent

              4.  approx. 1,000,000 killed in riots when groups met

       D.  Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu extremist

       E.  Jinnah became first governor-general of Pakistan

       F.  Jawaharlal Nehru became first prime minister of India